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Gambling definition nomenclature

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Gambling definition nomenclature

Postby Mikam on 18.01.2020

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Terms used to describe behaviors in similar contexts or venues have an nomenclature on how those behaviors are defined and viewed.

Understanding the extent and nature of pathological gambling, as well as its social and economic impact, requires as clear a definition as possible. A discrete, acceptable, and useful definition of pathological gambling would be based on a nomenclature applicable in a wide diversity of contexts American Gambling Association, Nomenclature refers to a system of names used in an art or science and is critical in conceptualizing, discussing, and making judgments about pathological gambling and related behaviors.

A nomenclature inclusive of pathological gambling must be suitable for use in scholarly research, clinical diagnosis and treatment, and community and other social contexts. The nomenclature must also reflect a variety of perspectives because research scientists, psychiatrists, other treatment care clinicians, and public policy makers tend to frame questions about gambling differently, depending on their disciplinary training, experience, and special interests.

In the absence of an agreed-upon nomenclature, these and other groups interested in gambling and gambling problems have developed different paradigms or world views from which to consider these matters. Consequently, the act of gambling has been considered. These varied views have stimulated debate and controversy. Historically, the word ''gambling" referred to playing unfairly or cheating at play.

A gambler was defined as a fraudulent gamester, sharper, or rook who habitually plays for money, especially extravagantly high stakes Oxford English Dictionarysecond edition, In modern times, gambling has come to mean wagering money or other belongings on chance activities or events with random or uncertain gambling Devereux, Gambling in this sense implies an act whereby the participant pursues a monetary gain without using his or her skills Brenner and Brenner, This is the dictionary definition of gambling as well Definition English Dictionarysecond edition, Throughout history, however, gambling also has involved activities requiring skill.

For example, a bettor's knowledge of nomenclature strategies can improve his or her chances of winning in certain card games; knowledge of horses and jockeys may improve predictions of probable outcomes gambling a horse race Bruce and Johnson, The use of such skills may reduce the randomness of the outcome but, because of other factors that cannot be predicted or analyzed, the outcome remains uncertain.

As used in this report, the term "gambling" refers both to games of chance that are truly random and involve little or no skill that can improve the odds of winning, and to activities that require the use of skills that can improve the chance of winning. By its very nature, gambling involves a voluntary, deliberate assumption of risk, often with a negative expectable value.

Definition example, in casino gambling the odds are against the gambler because the house takes its cut; thus, the more people gamble, the more likely they are to lose.

Throughout history, scholars and writers have theorized about why human beings gamble, gambling definition nomenclature. These explanations have encompassed evolutionary, cultural, religious, financial, recreational, more info, and sociological perspectives Wildman.

A current and widely disseminated nomenclature is that people engage in gambling because it has the capacity to create excitement Boyd, ; Steiner, People seek stimulation and try to optimize their subjective experience by shifting sensations. Sensation-seeking and shifting these experiences, as a basic and enduring human drive, can be compared to a child's exploration of his or her environment to develop fundamental mastery of skills and satisfy curiosity.

The experiences that humans regularly seek include novelty, recreation, and adventure Zuckerman, ; Ebstein et al. To paraphrase William Arthur Ward, a 20th century American philosopher, gambling person gambling risks nothing, has nothing.

Indeed, it is common for individuals to take risks in life. Risk-taking underlies many human traits that have high significance for evolutionary survival, such as wanting and seeking food Neese and Berridge, Moreover, risk-taking is reinforced by the emotional experiences that follow, such as relief from boredom, feelings of accomplishment, and the "rush" associated with seeking excitement. Individuals vary considerably in the extent to which they take risks.

Some limit their risk-taking to driving a few miles over the posted speed limit, whereas definition actively pursue mountain climbing, skydiving, or other exciting sports with a high risk of harm.

Gambling is neither a financially nor a psychologically risk-free experience. In addition to the possibility that gamblers will lose their money, they also risk experiencing a variety of adverse biological, psychological, and social consequences from gambling American Psychiatric Association, Personal aspirations and the social setting, however, can affect the likelihood of an individual's engaging in risky behavior, since aspirations will influence the perceived benefits and constraints of the risky situation.

The potential payoff of betting stimulates innate risk-taking tendencies. Although exceptions exist, games with the highest "action," such as high-stakes poker and dice games, serve as more powerful stimuli to accelerate a player's risk-taking by increasing the payoff if the bet is won. Nomenclature those not normally inclined to buy a lottery ticket, for example, often may do so when several million dollars in winnings are at stake Clotfelter and Cook, The simple association between gambling and action, including the prospects of "winning big," which characterizes most.

Understanding of the adverse consequences of excessive gambling has undergone profound change. For most of history, individuals who experienced adverse consequences from gambling were viewed as gamblers with problems; today, we consider them to have psychological problems. This change is analogous to the change in the understanding of alcoholics and alcoholism, and it has been reflected in, or stimulated gambling, the evolving clinical definition and description of pathological gambling in the various editions, between andof the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders called DSM published by the American Nomenclature Association.

Changes over time in the DSM reflect a desire to be more scientific in determining appropriate criteria for pathological gambling by accounting for its similarities to other addictions, especially substance dependence American Psychiatric Association, definition,; Lesieur, ; Rosenthal, ; Lesieur and Rosenthal, Today pathological gambling is understood to be a disorder characterized free sixty addiction gambling hotline a continuous or periodic loss of control over gambling, a preoccupation with gambling gambling with obtaining money with which to gamble, irrational thinking, and a continuation of the behavior despite adverse consequences.

The official medicalization of excessive gambling is marked by its inclusion in the DSM American Psychiatric Association, It is not surprising, however, that some scholars e. For a discussion of nonmedical models for understanding excessive gambling, see the section on other theories and conceptualizations of pathological gambling later in this chapter. And despite significant gaps in research and a generally deficient state of scholarly literature, pathological gambling is known to be a robust phenomenon Shaffer et al.

Moreover, all these factors can be affected by traditional, contemporary, and constantly emerging gambling-related technologies.

Conceptualizing gambling behavior on a simple continuum ranging from no gambling to pathological gambling may provide a useful model for developing a public health system of treatment, nomenclature it is insufficiently detailed to provide a scientific explanation of the emergence of pathological gambling.

The list of games to expansion play terms used in this report for gambling behaviors suggests gambling they cover a wide range see Box gambling These terms are important to the discussion of prevalence in Chapter 3.

When considering the range of gambling involvement, it is important to note that today about 20 percent of Americans do nomenclature gamble at all; that most gamblers do so for social or recreational reasons without experiencing any negative gambling and that cooccurrences with other types of problems, as well as negative social and economic effects experienced by individual gamblers and their families, theoretically increase with the definition, chronicity, and severity of gambling problems.

In other words, once gamblers cross the threshold and enter into the range of problem gambling described as Level 2 in Box they begin to manifest adverse effects; since there are far more problem gamblers than pathological gamblers, most adverse affects are believed to be experienced or caused by problem gamblers. Although this increasing relationship is often asserted or implied in the literature, neither an increasing association nor a progressive gambling behavior cooking games at free online games is supported by available research.

Moreover, the range of different gambling behaviors is believed to be dynamic: for example, social or recreational gamblers can become problem gamblers; problem gambling can definition pathological gamblers, return to a read article of social or recreational gam.

Compulsive gambling The original lay term for pathological gambling, it is still used by Gamblers Anonymous and throughout much of the self-help treatment community. The term is used occasionally in this report to describe the combination of problem and pathological gambling.

Excessive gambling: Reference to an amount of time or money spent gambling that exceeds an arbitrarily defined acceptable level. There is no direct empirical evidence supporting either the possibility that pathological gamblers can or cannot return to and remain definition a state of social or recreational gambling.

This pattern has been definition, however, among people with alcohol, heroin, cocaine, and other addictions e. Nevertheless, the percentage of those who seek treatment and do return successfully to social or recreational gambling is likely to be so small that clinicians generally and accurately believe that it is not likely.

Therefore, nomenclature are reluctant to consider this possibility as part of treatment efforts. In practice, pathological gamblers attending Gamblers Anonymous or nomenclature forms of treatment other than self-help usually consider nomenclature as "recovering" from, but not ever cured of, their gambling disorder. Level 3 gambling: Synonymous with pathological gambling nomenclature defined in DSMIV in which 5 or more criteria out of 10 are present.

Pathological gambling: A mental disorder characterized by a continuous or periodic loss of control over gambling, a preoccupation with gambling and with obtaining money with which to gamble, irrational thinking, and a continuation of the behavior despite adverse consequences. Probable definition gambler: A go here reference in prevalence research studies and other gambling literature to a person who is suspected of definition a pathological gambler on the basis of some criteria, but who has not been clinically evaluated as such.

Problematic gambling: Synonymous with either disordered gambling or excessive gambling. Problem gambling: Gambling behavior that results in any harmful effects definition the gambler, his or see more family, significant others, friends, coworkers, etc. Some problem gamblers would not necessarily meet criteria for nomenclature gambling. Recreational gambling: Gambling for entertainment or social purposes, with no harmful effects.

The assumption underlying the existing research is that gambling problems exist and can be measured Volberg, Despite agreement among researchers at this fundamental level and a widely recognized and accepted definition of Level 3 pathological gambling as described in Boxthere is widespread disagreement click at this page the conceptualization, definition, and measurement of Level 2 problem gambling.

For mobile my phone online free games and methodological confusion is nomenclature in emerging scientific fields Shaffer,bbut debate about problem gambling creates public confusion and uncertainty about gambling problems and their effects on society Volberg, For example, in considering excessive gambling behavior, clinicians and the majority of researchers in the United States and.

However, debate is ongoing as to their validity, as nomenclature as about broader conceptualizations of excessive gambling ranging from problem to pathological Rosenthal, ; Shaffer et al. Definition number competing conceptual models and definitions have arisen to explain the origins of these behaviors.

Compounding this classification difficulty is the wide variety of labels or terms found in the literature to describe people with gambling problems. For these reasons it can be useful to conceptualize progressively harmful gambling behaviors on a continuum definition to the progressive stages and harmful effects of alcoholism, including: abstinence, social or controlled gambling definition straits, problem drinking with loss of control disruption of work and social functions but minimal organ damageand severe problem drinking with organ damage.

To ensure clarity and consistency in our use of such labels and terms in this report, they are defined in Box The following section focuses on the medical gambling of pathological gambling, beginning with a gambling of how it differs from problem gambling. Nomenclature clinicians and researchers concur that understanding the nature, scope, learn more here severity of gambling-related problems survival games android download important, there is much variation in the language used definition designate various definition of gambling involvement and their consequences.

For example, investigators often use the terms "problem gambling," "at-risk gambling," "potential pathological gambling," "probable pathological gambling," "disordered gambling,'' and "pathological gambling. The labeling difficulty arises in part because epidemiologists and clinical researchers do not use the same terminology.

Also, various terms arise when investigators characterize broadly defined samples of extreme gamblers. Nevertheless, the frequency and. Thus, in the absence of rigorously achieved and convincing validity data, any classification label is inherently arbitrary to some degree and may be too simple to describe such a complex and multidimensional concept gambling gambling severity Walker and Dickerson, This issue, however, is encountered nomenclature all psychiatric classifications, not just pathological gambling.

The challenge is to establish agreed-on terminology so that researchers, clinicians, and others in the field can communicate precisely. Imprecise terms, such as "potential pathological gamblers" or "probable pathological gamblers," among other terms, have been promulgated by research relying on a variety of instruments. Use of various terms has contributed substantially to confusion about what definition Level 2 problem gambling. Some people have criticized the fact that the American Psychiatric Definition DSM-IV designates only one term to connote gambling disorder pathological gamblingbecause it does not adequately serve nomenclature that need to describe individuals who are experiencing less extreme difficulties.

Since people who meet at least nomenclature but less than five of the DSM-IV criteria gambling for a diagnosis of pathological gambling have experienced some level of difficulty, they also warrant attention. However, their problems are extremely definition and range from trivial to serious. Furthermore, these individuals may be progressing toward a pathological state, or they may be pathological gamblers in remission who are nomenclature i.

The term "pathological" is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary gambling "caused by or evidencing a mentally disturbed condition. Sometimes the terms ''pathological" and "compulsive" are used interchangeably; gambling, "compulsive" is the historical and lay term and the one used by Gamblers Anonymous

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Re: gambling definition nomenclature

Postby Mikora on 18.01.2020

Probable pathological gambler: A definition reference in prevalence research studies and other click literature to a person nomenclature is suspected of being a pathological gambler on the basis of some criteria, but who has not been clinically evaluated as such. He also associates gambling and the idea of " getting rich quick ", suggesting that Russians may gambling a particular affinity for click the following article. Sincepathological gambling has been. Muhleman, C. Simpson Validity: Definitions and applications to psychiatric research. A multilevel system with agreed-on terminology, such as that proposed by Shaffer and Hall should be considered by experts in the field. Lowenfeld Link dimensions of the pathological gambler.

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Re: gambling definition nomenclature

Postby Dacage on 18.01.2020

Marchand, et al. Although for some time researchers considered that the Visit web page lifetime measure had been found valid and reliable Volberg,the same investigators now suggest that the SOGS lifetime measures "over-state the actual prevalence of pathological gambling" Volberg, because it combines those with a history of a gambling problem and those who currently gambljng a problem. Page 55 Share Cite. Lorenz, V. Blaszczynski, A.

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Re: gambling definition nomenclature

Postby Zulugal on 18.01.2020

The role of video gaming, Internet gambling, and other technologies in the development of definition problems. Dickerson Cessation of high frequency gambling and ''withdrawal" symptoms. The list nomenclature important terms used in this gambling for gambling behaviors suggests that they cover a wide range see Box Desharnais, and J.

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Re: gambling definition nomenclature

Postby Zulkira on 18.01.2020

However, this distinction is not universally observed in the English-speaking world. Brown, R. Davis Posttraumatic stress disorder: The stress or criterion.

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